Jute is said a s golden fibre and also considered as fibre of the future.
Jute a bast fibre means the fibre known as pat, kosta, nalita, bimli or mesta.
Jute year means year commencing on 1st July and ending with 30th June the following year.
There are mainly two type of jute. They are capsularis (white) and olitorious ( tossa ) . while the capsularis fibre is whitish in colour and olitorious fibre is finer and stronger than the capsularis and is yellowish reddish, greyish in colour. Capsularis is normally sown between February to May while olitorious is sown between April to mid - June.
Jute requires humid climate with temperature fluctuating between 24 degree Celsius and 38 degree Celsius, the optimum being around 34 degree Celsius. Minimum rainfall required for jute cultivation is 1000 mm. Incessant rain and water logging are harmful. Where as the Capsularis variety can withstand water - logging to some extent during the later stage of growth, Olitorious varieties cannot. in the seeding stage water logging is not tolerated by both species. The most suitable growth for jute is in new grey alluvial soil of good depth receiving silt from annual floods. However jute is grown widely in sandy loams and clay loams. Sandy soil and heavy clays arte unsuitable. Both the Capsularis and Olitorious jute bare amenable to grading systems. White jute has 8 classes viz. W-1 to W-8 and tossa jute has 8 classes viz. TD-1 to TD-8 on the basis of length, strength, fineness, and lustre and free from enlargements and roots. Basic variety is W-5 in case of white jute and TD-5 in case of tossa jute. Similarly, quality wise mesta has been graded in 6 classes viz. M-1 to M-6. Jute plants after shedding of leaves are immersed in water in bundles so as to loosen the fibres enough to be pulled out. This process is known as retting. Gently flowing clear and soft water is ideal for retting. Ditches, tanks and pools are used for retting. Incomplete submersion and retting in stagnant water produce inferior quality of fibre. Most defects are due to faulty retting. Over retting results in luster - less and weak fibre.
Given below are some facts about production and consumption of Jute in the World and in India.
1. World Production.
2. World Consumption.
3. Indian Production.
4. Total cultivable area in India
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